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Our species nomenclature histories

By Willem Heijns
Last updated on 20-Jan-2015
Willem Heijns, 200

For every species in the Cichlid Room Companion Catalog a taxonomic/nomenclatural history is given. This history consists of a list of references to publications in the CRC-Library, containing a name of the species at hand relevant from a historical perspective. All names follow the rules of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), hereafter referred to as “the Code”. They are constructed as a combination of a generic name (to which genus does the species belong) and a specific epiphet (the name of the species itself). The specific name may have different endings, depending on the gender of the genus to which it is assigned.

Each name in the taxonomic/nomenclatural history has a qualification. The possible qualifications are:

Original combination

The name given to a species by its original author. The reference in the list points to the publication containing the original description.

New combination

The name given to a species, when it is assigned to a genus other than the one used by the original author. The ending of the specific name may change to match the gender of the new genus. The reference points to the publication in which the generic change has been proposed.

Restored combination

The name given to a species, when it is re-assigned to a genus it has earlier been assigned to. The ending of the specific name may change to match the gender of the new genus. The reference points to the publication in which the generic change has been proposed.

Previous identification

A name under which the species was previously known officially, but since the population has been described as a new species.

Junior synonym

The name given to a species after the publication of the original combination for the same species. The synonym is objective when both names refer to the same name-bearing type (the same fish). A subjective synonym occurs when both names apply to the same species, based on individual opinions (which may change over time). In some cases (i.e. simultaneous publication) the Code has provisions on how to establish synonymy. The reference points to the publication in which the synonymy has been established (with a comment referring to the original publication of the synonym).

In case of subjective synonyms, the taxonomic history records for junior synonym reflect the opinion of the proposer, which may or may not have been adopted in subsequent works or in the CRC catalog.

Senior synonym

The name given to a species before the publication of the original combination for the same species. The same criteria for objectivity/subjectivity apply. The reference points to the publication in which the synonymy has been established (with a comment referring to the original publication of the synonym).

A note on validity:

Only one of two synonyms can be valid. Usually it is the senior synonym, as determined by the Principle of Priority, formulated in the Code. In special cases the priority may be reversed, based on provisions in the Code and/or a decision by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, the authors of the Code.

In case of subjective synonyms, the taxonomic history records for senior synonym reflect the opinion of the proposer, which may or may not have been adopted in subsequent works or in the CRC catalog.

Provisional name

The name given to a potentially undescribed species, that does not comply with the Code, but is given as a preliminary reference to the new species (i.e. based on collecting locality). The reference points to the publication in which this undescribed species is presented. Each species may have been referred by more than one provisional name prior to its scientific description.

New rank

Proposed change of rank for a name, from specific to subspecific level or vice versa. Raising the rank to specific level alters the name to a binomial combination; lowering the rank requires the addition of a third (subspecific) name, creating a trinomial. The reference points to the publication in which the new name rank is proposed.

Misidentification

The name used for a (group of) specimen(s), belonging to this species, but incorrectly identified as belonging to another species. The reference points to the publication containing the misidentification. The comment may include the word "part.", which means that some (but not all) of the specimens in a group have been misidentified.

Incorrect spelling

The name given to a species, using a spelling that needs to be corrected in order to comply to the Code and/or fit the opinion of the author proposing the correction. The reference points to the publication where the incorrect spelling is determined and a correct spelling may be proposed.

Name correction

The name given to a species in order to correct an earlier name, said to have an incorrect spelling. The change may either be mandatory (i.e. the earlier spelling is not compliant with the Code) or reflect the opinion of the author, in which case the change must be allowed for by the Code. The reference points to the publication in which the name correction is proposed.

Pre-occupied name

The name given to a species, having also been given to another (animal) species earlier (i.e. homonym) and therefore in need to be replaced. The reference points to the publication in which the pre-occupied name has been noted (with a comment referring to the publication containing the description of the pre-occupied name.)

Replacement name

The name given to a species in order to replace an earlier established name (i.e. to resolve homonymy). The replacement name has the same name-bearing type as the earlier (replaced) name. The reference points to the publication proposing the replacement name.

Unavailable name

The name given to a species, that does not conform to articles 10 to 20 of the Code or that is excluded by the Code under article 1.3. The reference points to the publication containing the proposed name.

Citation:

Heijns, Willem. (January 20, 2015). "Our species nomenclature histories". Cichlid Room Companion. Retrieved on December 18, 2018, from: https://www.cichlidae.com/site_doc.php?id=282.