Zootaxa 1603: 1–78, 2007.
Genus Archocentrus GillAbstract
The cichlid genus Archocentrus has been considered one of the most promising (i.e., possibly natural) genera resurrected to receive some of the species formerly included in Cichlasoma. Evidence is presented to justify generic recognition of Archocentrus, as well as eight other closely related genera (Caquetaia, Hypsophrys, Parachromis, Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Cryptoheros, Amatitlania, and Rocio). Of these, Amatitlania (type species, A. nigrofasciata) and Rocio (type species, R. octofasciata) are described as new. The present revision treats all nominal species ever assigned to Archocentrus, as well as species that have been included in or near the same clade as Archocentrus centrarchus (type species of the genus) in available phylogenetic analyses. Geographical variation in morphology of the more widespread species was examined, which has resulted in the description of six new species (Cryptoheros chetumalensis, Amatitlania coatepeque, A. kanna, A. siquia, Rocio gemmata, and R. ocotal) with a seventh resurrected from synonymy (Cryptoheros cutteri). Archocentrus includes the type species (Ar. centrarchus), plus Ar. spinosissimus and Ar. multispinosus. Cryptoheros is restricted to the species complexes of Cr. spilurus (= subgenus Cryptoheros, including also Cr. chetumalensis and Cr. cutteri) and Cr. septemfasciatus (= Bussingius n. subgen., including also Cryptoheros altoflavus, Cr. nanoluteus, Cr. myrnae, and Cr. sajica); Cryptoheros panamensis is placed in Panamius n. subgen. Herotilapia is synonymized with Archocentrus, and Neetroplus is synonymized with Hypsophrys, which now includes the type species H. nicaraguensis and H. nematopus. Lectotypes are designated for Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Archocentrus spinosissimus, Cryptoheros septemfasciatus, Cr. spilurus, and Rocio octofasciata. Cichlasoma immaculatum is considered to be a synonym of Archocentrus spilurus, not of Ar. spinosissimus.
Archocentrus centrarchus (Gill, 1877)
Archocentrus multispinosus (Gunther, 1867)
Archocentrus spinosissimus (Vaillant & Pellegrin, 1902)
Genus Cryptoheros Allgayer
Panamius, n. subgen
Cryptoheros panamensis (Meek & Hildebrand, 1913), n. comb.
Subgenus Cryptoheros Allgayer
Cryptoheros spilurus (Gunther, 1862)
Cryptoheros chetumalensis, new species
Cryptoheros cutteri (Fowler, 1932), n. comb.
Bussingius, n. subgen.
Cryptoheros septemfasciatus (Regan, 1908)
Cryptoheros altoflavus Allgayer, 2001
Cryptoheros myrnae (Loiselle, 1997)
Cryptoheros nanoluteus (Allgayer, 1994)
Cryptoheros sajica (Bussing, 1974)
Amatitlania, new genus
Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Gunther, 1867), n. comb.
Amatitlania coatepeque, new species
Amatitlania kanna, new species
Amatitlania siquia, new species
Rocio, new genus
Rocio octofasciata (Regan, 1903), n. comb.
Rocio ocotal, new species
Rocio gemmata Contreras-Balderas & Schmitter-Soto, new species
Genus Hypsophrys Agassiz
Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Gunther, 1859)
Hypsophrys nematopus (Gunther, 1867), n. comb.