Get the full color PDF of this classic now out of print book!
Type species: Grammatotria lemairii Boulenger, 1899
Grammatotria lemairii male in the aquarium of Julien Ruiz; France. Photo by Julien Ruiz. Determiner Julien Ruiz.
- Body very elongated, 4-4.5 times as long as high, spindle-shaped towards the caudal. The ventral and dorsal profiles are symmetric. The head is large with a very elongated snout.
- 4-6 series of conical and more or less bent teeth, external teeth largest situated more or less horizontally at the edge of the lower jaw.
- Triangular pharyngeal bone with mainly sub-conical molars, including two very large and oval molars at the back.
- The dorsal fin contains 15-16 hard rays and 13-15 soft rays; anal fin contains 3 hard rays and 9-12 soft rays.
- 44-59 (M 49) scales along the longitudinal line.
- Total length 26 cm.
- The color of the body is silvery with a distinct black spot on the caudal peduncle.
Species currently included:
Grammatotria lemairii Boulenger, 1899
Moliro, DR Congo (former Zaire).
Parectodus hemelrycki Poll, 1943
Link to Grammatotria lemairii in the CRC Catalogue.
Remarks on taxonomic status:
Molecular phylogenies has shown that the most ancient split within the Ectodini tribe is observed between Grammatotria lemairii and all other taxa, and Grammatotria lemairii therefore represent the most ancestral branch and species within the tribe (Sturmbauer & Meyer, 1993; Koblmüller et al. 2004).
This result is in contrast with a previous morphological study (Liem 1981). Liem regarded Grammatotria lemairii as the morphologically most derived species of the Ectodini, based upon characters considered specialized when compared with Astatotilapia, which he treated as generalized and ancestral. The above mentioned molecular analyses has shown that this properly is not the case, as the Ectodini tribe is considered to be much older than the species flock in Lake Victoria, which Astatotilapia has been shown to be closely related to (Sturmbauer & Meyer, 1993).
- Koblmüller, Stephan & W. Salzburger & C. Sturmbauer. 2004. "Evolutionary relationships in the sand-dwelling cichlid lineage of Lake Tanganyika suggest multiple colonization of rocky habitats and convergent origin of bipartental mouthbrooding". Journal of Molecular Evolution. v. 58(n. 1), pp. 79-96 (crc01117) (摘要).
- Maréchal, C. & M. Poll. 1991. "Grammatotria". Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). Vol. 4. v. 4; pp. 97-98 (crc01135).
- Poll, Max. 1986. "Classification des Cichlidae du lac Tanganika. Tribus, genres et especes". Academie Royale de Belgique, Mémoires de la Classe des Sciences. Collection in 8 - 2ème série; 45 (2); p 1-163 (crc00033).
- Sturmbauer, Christian & A. Meyer. 1993. "Mitochondrial phylogeny of the endemic mouthbrooding lineages of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika in Eastern Africa". Molecular Biology and Evolution. v.10(4); pp. 751-768 (crc01138) (摘要).
© Copyright 2005 Thomas Andersen, all rights reserved
Andersen, Thomas. (十月 26, 2005). "Synopsis of Grammatotria Boulenger, 1899". 慈鯛魚室同好網. 檢索 六月 19, 2013, 來自: http://www.cichlidae.com/section.php?id=90&lang=zh.
Copyright 1996-2013 Juan Miguel Artigas Azas, All Rights Reserved