Type species: Cyathopharynx foai (Vaillant, 1899)
Cyathopharynx foai male in Lake Tangayika Photo by Michael Karlsson.
- Oblong and relatively high body, less than 3 times longer than high, with convex dorsal and ventral profiles
- Dorsal XIII-XIV, 13-15. Anal III, 8-10. The soft rays of the unpaired fins are prolonged and may reach beyond the origin of the caudal fin in the male. Ventral fins in mature males prolonged without spatulae, nearly reaching to the caudal fin. Caudal deeply cresentric with filamentous lobes in the male.
- Small subterminal mouth. Teeth tricuspid, conical or subconic, arranged in 3-5 lines.
- Lower pharyngeal bone with the posterior border rounded, and covered densely with very fine more or less bicuspid teeth.
- Small scales , 48-67 along the longitudinal line.
- Two lateral lines.
- Total length 210 mm
Species currently included:
Cyathopharynx foai (Vaillant, 1899)
- Cyathopharynx foai (Vaillant, 1899) - by Konings 1998
- Cyathopharynx furcifer (Vaillant, 1899) - by Poll 1946
- Cyathopharynx foae (Vaillant, 1899) – by Regan 1920
- Ophthalmotilapia foae (Vaillant, 1899) – Pellegrin 1904
- Ectodus foae Vaillant, 1899
- Tilapia grandoculis Boulenger, 1899
- Cyathopharynx grandoculis (Boulenger, 1899)
Link to Cyathopharynx foai in the CRC Catalogue.
Cyathopharynx furcifer (Boulenger, 1898)
- Cyathopharynx furcifer (Boulenger, 1898) - by Regan 1920
- Paratilapia furcifer Boulenger, 1898
Link to Cyathopharynx furcifer in the CRC Catalogue.
Remarks on taxonomic status:
Konings discovered two species of Cyathopharynx living and breeding sympatric at Moliro, D. R. Congo: Cyathopharynx furcifer, and a species that fits the description of C. foai, a taxa long considered a junior synonym of C. furcifer, and Konings therefore suggested that C. foai should be rehabilitated as a valid taxa (Konings 1998). Note that not all authors follow this suggestion.
Besides the two described species of Cyathopharynx, several potentially un-described species might very well exist in the Lake as well, as populations of Cyathopharynx has been found in the northern part of the Lake, which has some similarities with C. furcifer or C. foai from the southern part, but also differ in both morphology and coloration.
The molecular analysis of the tribe Ectodini by Koblmüller et al. (2004) showed that Cyathopharynx form a subclade within the Ophthalmotilapia-clade, together with the genera Cardiopharynx and Ophthalmotilapia. Interestingly the analysis suggest that Cyathopharynx furcifer forms a cluster together with O. heterodonta and O. ventralis (could actually be C. foai, which is not considered a valid taxa by Koblmüller at al.)