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Prognathochromis (Greenwood, 1980), a Genus review

Por , 2006. print format
Última actualización el 03-feb-2006
Greg Steeves, 2004

" The Prognathochomis genus is based on Pellegrin’s 1904 description of Paratilapia prognatha. Closely related to the Harpagochromis lineage, Prognathochromis species have a slender body. The snout is pointed with a noticeable premaxilla protuberance. Prognathochromis are slender carnivores (most are piscivorous) with large, slightly down turned mouths. The lower jaw extends past the upper giving the head a pointed "arrow" shape. When viewing the profile, the eye socket of Prognathochromis species is relatively even with the forehead slope. Teeth in the outer rows of larger fish (over 9cm) are stout and curved "

Especies tratadas en este documento: Prognathochromis perrieri

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Prognathochromis (Greenwood, 1980)

The Prognathochomis genus is based on Pellegrin’s 1904 description of Paratilapia prognatha. Closely related to the Harpagochromis lineage, Prognathochromis species have a slender body. The snout is pointed with a noticeable premaxilla protuberance. Prognathochromis are slender carnivores (most are piscavores) with large, slightly down turned mouths. The lower jaw extends past the upper giving the head a pointed "arrow" shape. When viewing the profile, the eye socket of Prognathochromis species is relatively even with the forehead slope. Teeth in the outer rows of larger fish (over 9cm) are stout and curved.

The subgenus Tridontochromis is differentiated by a small adult size (9.5-12cm) and protrusible jaws. As the name implies, Tridontochromis main characteristic is the presence of tricuspid teeth in the outer row of both jaws. The pharyngeal bone contains fine compressed teeth.

The other subgenus Prognathochromis usually reach a large adult size (14-23cm) except three species (10cm). Dentition consists of unicuspid teeth in adult individuals lining the outer row on both jaws. The eye protrudes slightly above the cranial slope. Internally, the pharyngeal bone is covered with noticeably more coarse teeth as compared with Tridontochromis species.

arcanus (Prognathochromis) Greenwood & Gee, 1969. Lake Victoria. Extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) arcanus grows to 14.2 cm. It is a deep water species taken in 22-50m over a mud bottom in and around Nsadzi Island Uganda. The premaxilla (outer mouth structure) extends beyond the cranial slope producing a hump at eye level. The outer rows of teeth in both jaws of adult fish are thin and unicuspid. The 2-3 rows of inner teeth are mostly tricuspid. Diet (presumed piscavore) and coloration is unknown. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) arcanus, superficially resembles members of the Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) tridens complex but lacking the dentition specific to the subgenus (Greenwood, 1978).

argenteus (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1922. Lake Victoria. Extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) argenteus is another of the larger Lake Victoria piscavores at 20.2cm. The cranial profile is lightly concaved with a slight premaxillary hump. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) argenteus is torpedo shaped with an upturned mouth and moderately thick lips. Slender unicuspid teeth line the outer rows in the jaw while the 1-5 inner rows contain unicuspid and tricuspid dentition. The later more frequently found in smaller fish.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) argenteus frequents shallow water (12m) over a mud bottom. Food matter of examined specimens consisted of insect matter and cyprinids. There is no size difference between the sexes (Greenwood, 1967).

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) argenteus most closely resembles Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) longirostris with the former developing a long snout and bigger adult size. Greenwood speculated that both species formed from a common Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) prognathus ancestor.

bartoni (Prognathochromis) Greenwood, 1962. Lake Victoria extinct

Superficially, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) bartoni resembles members of the Harpagochromis worthingtoni complex. The forehead slope is straight with a noticeable premaxillary hump. The outer rows of teeth are unicuspid in both jaws. There are 2-4 inner rows of teeth made up of mostly unicuspid dentition, some tricuspid in smaller specimens.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) bartoni inhabits shallow water in and around thick patches of aquatic plants some distance offshore. It is found over a variety of substrate in sheltered bays. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) bartoni is a strict piscavore with no set preference as to species taken. Haplochromis type species, other cichlids and minnows (Cyprinidae) are included in its diet. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) bartoni is a moderately large genetic member at 19.5cm (Greenwood, 1966).

bayoni (Prognathochromis) Boulenger, 1909. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) bayoni is a piscavore that hunts in relatively shallow waters (10m or less). It grows to 15.4cm and is found over a hard or sandy substrate. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) bayoni hunts in open water for its main prey of cyprinid fishes.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) bayoni is easily recognizable by examination of the elongated pelvic fins. The second hard ray of the pelvic fin extends further than the beginning of the anal fin. The lower jaw does not extend beyond the upper as is common with other representatives of the Prognathochromis genus. The premaxillary hump in present but not pronounced. Unicuspid teeth in 2-4 rows line the jaws (Greenwood, 1962).

chlorochous (Tridontochromis) Greenwood & Gee, 1969. Lake Victoria

The name "chlorous" is a Greek derivative in reference to the green coloration distinctive to this species. Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) chlorochous grows to 12cm and is usually found in depths up to 65m. Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) chlorochous has been taken in trawl nets over mud bottoms at Bunuma, Bulago, Bugaia, Mwama, and Nsadzi Islands. Gut samplings suggest that Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) chlorochous feeds on bottom dwelling crustaceans.

The outer jaw rows can contain unicuspid and weakly bicuspid in addition to tricuspid teeth. The 2-4 inner rows are made up of unicuspid, bicuspid and tricuspid teeth. The cranial slope is steeper than many other Prognathochromis with a protruding eye socket bulge.

Adult males wear a dark green sheen with five black vertical bars lining the body. The dorsal fin is light green anteriorly fading to translucent at the rear. The caudal and pectoral fins continue the greenish body sheen at the base fading to clear. The anal fin is black at the base and clear at the outer edges. There are 2-3 eggs spots dotting the anal fin as well. The pelvic fins are jet black.

Females are yellow green with a faint horizontal bar splitting the body. Five black bars run vertically along the flanks. Fins are dull lime green. The upper lip is green and the lower yellow.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) chlorochous is part of the Prognathochromis tridens complex (Greenwood, 1969).

crocopeplus (Tridontochromis) Greenwood & Barel, 1969. Lake Victoria

The name "crocopeplus" is a Greek derivative from "ochrous" in reference to the yellow coloration found in this species. It grows to 10.5cm. The cranial profile is straight, and not overly sloped, with a slight premaxillary hump at eye level. The lower jaw extends beyond the upper. Unicuspid, bicuspid and tricuspid teeth are found in the 2-4 rows implanted in both jaws.

Basic male body coloration is dark grey on the back with a white belly. There is a faint mid lateral stripe running from the base of the caudal to the gill plate. The pelvic fins are dark grey with a yellowish tinge. The dorsal fin is dull yellow with dark spines. The anal fin starts out crimson fading to ducky yellow at the outside. Two or three yellow ocelli adorn the anal fin. The Caudal fin has a yellow tinge with dark rays.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) crocopeplus is found in the Mwanza Gulf region (more frequently at Speke Gulf) between Nafuba and Tefu Islands. The bottom consists of organic mud at a depth of 28m. The intestinal tract is rather long when compared to other members of the "tridens" complex. This perhaps suggests that at least a portion of the Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) crocopeplus diet could consist of algal matter associated with favored habitat (Greenwood, 1978). It is unknown to what extent Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) crocopeplus is piscavorous. It is also probable that mollusks form at least a portion of its diet.

cryptogramma (Tridontochromis) Greenwood & Gee, 1969. Lake Victoria

The clever name of cryptogramma was given to this species by Humphrey Greenwood and was in reference to the broken blotched pattern crossing the body appearing to resemble Morse code symbols (cryptogram). The cranial profile is straight with a concave humping at the beginning of the premaxillary hump. The top and bottom jaws show little differentiation in protuberance (bottom jaw may extend slightly further in adults). Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) cryptogramma has larger eyes than many other representatives of the genus.

The jaw contains well planted bicuspid and tricuspid teeth in the outer row. The 2-3 rows of rear dentition consist of unicuspid, bicuspid as well as tricuspid teeth. The entire mouth structure extends from the head in a pointed beak-like appendage (premaxillary).

Male body coloration is steel grey at the top fading to dull yellow and then to silver on the belly. The throat region has a red flush to it. Laterally, crossing the body are blotched black patches (mentioned previously). The caudal fin continues the black body blotching at the base fading to clear with a slight red tinge. The dorsal fin is clear with black edging. The anal fin is translucent and spotted with 2 or 3 yellow ocelli. The pelvic fins are black. Females have less pronounced but similar body markings without the red flush in the cheeks and throat. Fins are dull yellow or clear.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) cryptogramma is and small species (9.4cm) found over a mud bottom at a depth of 10m around Namone Point and 16-22m at the Bulago-Tava Islands. Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) cryptogramma is unusual in that its diet consists of fly larvae presumably taken from the surface, and a shrimp species inhabiting the bottom.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) cryptogramma, despite having a unique body patterning, is considered a member of the Prognathochromis tridens complex although the affinity may be loose at best (Greenwood, 1969).

decticostoma (Prognathochromis) Greenwood & Gee, 1969. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) decticostoma name is derived from Greek "dekikos" and "stoma" in reference to the species large mouth. A bigger predator at 22.9cm, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) decticostoma feeds on both fish and bottom dwelling shrimp. The cranial profile is straight with a pronounced premaxillary appendage. The teeth in the outer row of both jaws are slender, straight and unicuspid. The 2-4 inner rows of teeth are unicuspid as well and curved inward so much so that they almost lay flat against the inner mouth.

Male body coloration is a rich brown with a blue sheen fading to silver along the back. The remainder of the body has a green-yellow tinge. The dorsal fin is clear with red and orange highlights. The anal fin is clear with a dull red tinge and a few eggs spots lined in two rows. The caudal fin is clear with red streaks and spotting between the rays. The pelvic fins are dark.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) decticostoma is found in the waters around Nsadzi Island over a mud bottom at a depth of 23-57m.

Anatomically, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) decticostoma is most similar to Harpagochromis spekii. Possible body coloration differentiates the two. In Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) decticostoma the lower jaw lays more flat than that of Harpagochromis spekii. There is a close resemblance to Harpagochromis serranus as well (Greenwood, 1969).

Due to the affinity of the two Harpagochromis species, argument could be made to classify Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) decticostoma into the former genus. At this time it is left within Prognathochromis as per Greenwoods distinction.

dentex (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1922. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) dentex is a slender cichlid reaching a size of 15.9cm. The forehead is slightly curved with hump where the beak-like premaxillary extension begins. The bottom jaw extends beyond the upper and is pronounced with thick lips. Large unicuspid teeth in three rows line both jaws. Smaller specimens contain some tricuspid dentition as well. Live coloration is unknown. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) dentex has been taken over both mud and sandy bottoms at a depth of 8m. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) dentex is a piscavore feeding on haplochromine type cichlids.

The Prognathochromis dentex complex of species includes Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) estor, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) mento and Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) macrognathus.

Once ranging throughout the northern portion of Lake Victoria, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) dentex was last seen in its native waters in 1982.

dichrourus (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1922. Lake Victoria

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) dichrourus has a sloping cranial profile with slight premaxilla hump at eye level. The snout is beak-like in appearance with the lower jaw extending beyond the upper and merging to a point. The thick lips of adult full sized specimens are lined with curved oblique unicuspid teeth in 2-4 rows. In juvenile individuals, a mixture of unicuspid, bicuspid and tricuspid teeth are present with tricuspid being dominant in young species.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) dichrourus is found in strata of varying depth from 3-28m over sand, mud and rocky bottoms. This species preys upon haplochromine cichlids but may opportunistically indulge on insects as well. This species ranges in the northern portion of Lake Victoria near Jinja Uganda, and off Katebo, Karenia, and Soswa Islands (Greenwood, 1969).

Coloration of Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) dichrourus is unique among the genus. Dominant males sport a golden red back while the flanks and belly are black. The caudal fin is black at the base and red towards the extremities. The anal fin is clear at the outer edges flowing to red at the base and is dotted with 2-4 yellow egg spots. The dorsal fin is black at the base, gold in the middle portion and red at the edges. There is a faint mid lateral stripe crossing the body.

Females and immature males are similarly colored. The body is grey brown with a blue tinge about the head. The dorsal fin is muddy grey. The anal has some red in it and usually a single ocelli. The caudal fin is grey at the top while the bottom portion is oran ge. Pelvic fins are dark. The females are ascetically attractive as well.

dolichorhynchus (Tridontochromis) Greenwood & Gee, 1969. Lake Victoria

The cranial profile of Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) dolichorhynchus is slightly curved and elongated. A slight premaxillary hump is present at eye level. The eye socket protrudes above the forehead slightly. The lower jaw extends slightly beyond the upper. Teeth in the upper jaw are unevenly bicuspid and sometimes tricuspid towards the rear. Teeth in the lower jaw are larger than those in the upper. There are 1-3 inner rows of teeth made up predominantly of tricuspid crowns.

Male coloration consists of a purple back fading to sliver on the flanks with a sliver belly. The lips are bright blue green. The dorsal fin is clear with a red tinge. The caudal fns is dark at the base streaking towards the outer edge. The anal fin is dark adorned with orange egg spots.

Females are lighter in coloration with a mid lateral bar extending from the caudal peduncle to the head. Fins are all translucent.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) dolichorhynchus grows to 11.9cm and is found in depths between 10-30m. It has been taken in waters both near and offshore but always over a mud bottom. Diptera larvae, shrimp and small fish make up the diet of Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) dolichorhynchus. Mud found in gut samplings along with particular animal matter suggests a bottom feeding species. This species occurs at Murchison Bay, Buvuma Channel and Nsadzi Island (Greenwood, 1969).

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) dolichorhynchus is considered a member of the Prognathochromis tridens complex.

estor (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1929. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) estor is a slender streamlined species growing to 17cm. There is a notable premaxillary hump that interrupts the steady slow slope of the forehead. Both jaws are lined with strong unicuspid teeth in the outer rows. The 2-4 inner tooth rows are made up of unicuspid teeth in larger individuals and tricuspid in smaller. Intermediate specimens contain varying degrees of both types of dentition. Live coloration is unknown.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) estor has been taken in shallow waters (6m) from sheltered bays and gulfs over a mud bottom. Due to the limited number of specimens catalogued (9), this should not be considered Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) estor’s only habitat. Little is known concerning the ecology of this species. This predator feeds upon small haplochromines. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) estor is found in areas around Jinja Uganda (Greenwood, 1962).

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) estor is part of the Prognathochromis dentex complex.

eutaenia (Prognathochromis?) Regan & Trewavas, 1928. Lake Victoria

The true identity of Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) eutaenia might never bee known as the species is described on a single incomplete specimen. At 10.5cm, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) eutaenia has a diet consisting of shrimp.

flavipinnis (Prognathochromis) Boulenger, 1906. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) flavipinnis reaches 15.6cm and occurs in the northern portions of Lake Victoria, more specifically, Jinja Uganda, Ramafuta Island, Entebbe Harbour, Pilkington and Ekunu Bay. The cranial slope is straight and steep. There is a premaxillary hump at the eyes that extends the front portion of the head into a beak like structure. The lower jaw extends slightly beyond the upper. Both jaws are lined with unicuspid teeth. The inner tooth rows of the upper jaw number 2-3 while the lower jaw contains 1-2 rows. Dentition is made up of unicuspid teeth in adult fish and some tricuspid (increasing as size diminishes) in smaller individuals. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) eutaenia is found in shallow water over a variety of substrate. It feeds upon over fish as well as insects (Greenwood, 1962).

Adult male coloration is distinctive. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) eutaenia is light orange along the back, becoming dark grey at the belly. The body is line with four wide vertical bars that take on a blotched appearance. There is also an incomplete mid lateral bar crossing the body. The dorsal fin is dull yellow dotted with red blotches between the fin rays. The anal and caudal fins are yellow brown. The ocelli on the anal fin are yellow with a red hue. Pelvic fins are black. Females maintain the blotched patterning of the males but have a silver yellow body with an olive green forehead. The caudal fin is dark at the base, clear at the outer edge. The Dorsal fin is clear with darker spots between the rays. The anal and pelvic fins are dull yellow.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) is anatomically similar to Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perciodes and Harpagochromis pericoides with differing coloration and subtle differences with fin shape and mouth structure.

gilberti (Prognathochromis) Greenwood & Gee, 1969 Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) gilberti is an honorarium given to Michael Gilbert of East African Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization. This streamlined species has a straight cranial profile and pronounced premaxillary structure. The mouth is angled downwards and lined with 3-5 rows of teeth. The outer rows are made up of thin unicuspid teeth curved inwards. Teeth making up the inner rows are unicuspid and pointing inwards to such a degree that they appear to lay flat.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) gilberti inhabits the waters Bulago Island at a depth of 16 -24m over a mud bottom. This species feeds on cyprinid fish and possibly insect larvae as well (Greenwood, 1969).

gowersi (Prognathochromis) Trewavas, 1928. Lake Victoria extinct

The cranial profile of Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) gowersi is straight with a prominent premaxillary hump. The lower jaw extends noticeably beyond the upper. The lips are thick and the mouth angles downward. The outer rows of teeth are short, wide and unicuspid. The inner teeth are in 2-5 rows, unicuspid and flattened pointing inward. The overall body shape is torpedoed and streamlined.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) gowersi is found in shallow water not in excess of 6m. It has no preference in regards to substrate and is a piscavore feeding on haplochromine cichlids and possibly other species as well (Greenwood, 1962). Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) gowersi is found in the northern portion of Lake Victoria especially around Jinja Uganda.

longirostris (Prognathochromis) Hilgendorf, 1888. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) longirostris is found at Bunkako, Jinja, Grant Bay, Nusa Point, Majita Beach, and Capri Bay, Mwanza. Growing to 14.5cm, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) longirostris feeds on insects as well as smaller fish. This species is found over a sand substrate in open water (Greenwood, 1962).

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) longirostris has a slightly curved cranial profile with an indentation at eye level caused by the premaxillary hump. The fish is streamlined with a pronounced angled mouth. Adult fish have thin unicuspid teeth in the outer row of both jaws. Smaller fish can have bicuspid dentition in the front rows as well. The inner 1-3 rows are mostly unicuspid with tricuspid teeth not uncommon.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) longirostris has an affinity with Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) argenteus in regards to the streamlined body shape and oblique jaws. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) longirostris is considered a member of the Prognathochromis mento complex.

macrognathus (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1922. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) macrognathus attains an adult size of 17.4cm. It is another northern Lake Victoria species found along the Ugandan coastline at Bunjako, Jinja, Fielding Bay, Ekunu Bay, Pilkington Bay and Buvuma Channe. In Kenya Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) macrognathus has been taken at Port Southby, and Majita Beach in Tanzania. The lower jaw extends beyond the upper. The cranial profile is straight with a hump at the premaxillary. In fish over 10cm the outer rows of teeth are strong, curved, and unicuspid. In smaller individuals, the teeth are unicuspid as well as weakly bicuspid. There upper jaw contains 3-6 inner rows and 1-3 on the lower consisting of a mixture of unicuspid and tricuspid teeth.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) macrognathus is found in waters no greater than 8m over a variety of substrates although it shows an affinity for a solid bottom. This predator feeds on smaller haplochromines although one specimen had blue-green algae in the intestinal tract.

This species is a member of the Prognathochromis dentex complex.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) melichrous is found over a mud bottom in deep water. In addition to the aforementioned region that the fish used in the species description we taken (holotype), this species has also been reported further south of Nsadzi Island and in much deeper (42-50m) strata. The diet is largely unknown but thought to consist of crustaceans as well as insect larvae taken from the substrate (Greenwood, 1969).

mento (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1922. Lake Victoria critically endangered

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) mento is a complex of animals including Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) longirostris. Distribution of these fish is wide spread especially in the northwestern portion of Lake Victoria. The holotype was taken at Bunjako Island Uganda and was 17.4 cm which is near the maximum size of this fish. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) mento is torpedo shaped with a well defined premaxillary appendage. The cranial slope is straight or very slightly convex and low. The bottom jaw projects well beyond the upper. Very stout, curved unicuspid teeth make up the outer row of both jaws. Between 1-4 inner rows of teeth line the mandibles with unicuspid, (some weakly tricuspid in smaller individuals) strongly curved inward dentition.

Adult males have a grey blue metallic cast to the flanks fading to a lighter grey on the abdomen. There is an iridescent sheen about the head. The dorsal spines are blue while the soft portions are sooty grey. The caudal fin has a dark cast to it. The anal fin is sooty with darker spines and dotted with orange red egg spots. The pelvic fins have a black anterior lightening up somewhat as it progressed rearward. Females may be much the same with a green sheen to the head and lighter body coloration. All fins have a yellow tinge (Greenwood, 1962).

All Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) mento have been taken near shore, usually within 100m, and over a hard sand or rock and sand bottom. Although large insect nymphs and other haplochromine type cichlids are taken, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) mento appears to have an affinity for Cyprinidae. Being an fast open water predator, the body profile is rather unique enough to anatomically determine similarities which lend species towards inclusion in the ":mento" complex.

nanoserranus (Prognathochromis) Greenwood & Barel, 1978. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) nanoserranus is a smaller piscavore at 7.6cm. This species hails from northwestern Launsa Bay in Mwanza Gulf. The name is derived from the Latin "nanus" meaning dwarf and serranus regarding the affinity to Harpagochromis serranus.

The mouth is down turned with an outer row of unicuspid teeth in the upper jaw. The lower jaw contains unicuspid teeth fore most but a mixture of bicuspid and tricuspid teeth may occur in the rear. The inner teeth are obliquely curved and mostly tricuspid (possibly some unicuspid) lined in 1-3 rows. This dentition pattern is quite distinct amongst smaller piscavores and shared only with Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pellegrini.

Live coloration is unknown. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) nanoserranus is an opportunistic predator taking small haplochromine fishes as well as various insect nymphs. Mud was also found in gut samplings suggesting a bottom feeder of sorts. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) nanoserranus is found in shallow water (4-8m) over a muddy substrate (Greenwood, 1978). This cichlid displays affinities for various species groups but would seem to have most in common with the "tridens" complex.

nigrescens (Prognathochromis) Pellegrin, 1909. Lake Victoria extinct

Baring a close resemblance to both Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) flavipinnis and Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) percoides and whether this cichlid (based on description from the holotype) is distinctive enough to be considered a species outright is unknown. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) nigrescens is included here for reference purposes.

paraguiarti (Prognathochromis) Greenwood, 1967. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) paraguiarti has a wide distribution in and around Jinja Uganda. The holotype was taken near Nasu Beach, Buvuma Channel. The name is in direct reference to similarities in appearance to Harpagochromis guiarti. The dorsal slope is slightly convex with a hump at the premaxilla. The mouth is down turned slightly with thick lips. The jaws are equal in protrusion or with the lower slightly forward of the upper. Small specimens (to 7.5 cm) contain mostly bicuspid dentition while larger individuals (over 11.5cm) only unicuspid teeth line the outer jaw rows. The 1-4 inner rows are lined with mostly tricuspid teeth with sometimes a number of unicuspid in the mix as well. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) paraguiarti grows to 15.6cm.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) paraguiarti is found over a hard substrate close to shore in water not more than 10m of depth. Gut samplings include a large portion larval insects and well as some plant material (likely incidental ingestion). In addition to the previously mention affinity to Harpagochromis guiarti, Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) paraguiarti also bears resemblance to Psammochromis acidens (Greenwood, 1967).

pellegrini (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1922. Lake Victoria

An opportunistic feeder, the diet of Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pellegrini consists of fish and insects. It is found over a sandy substrate in open waters near stands of aquatic plants. This species grows to 10.4cm and is another Ugandan cichlid found in the waters between Entebbe and Jinja.

The cranial profile is slightly concave with an indentation at eye level where the premaxillary begins. The mouth is slanted with the lower jaw extending beyond the upper. Individuals over 8.5cm have solely unicuspid teeth in the outer rows while fish under this size have a mixture of unicuspid and bicuspid teeth. The inner tooth rows number 2-4 in the upper jaw and 1-2 in the lower. These inner rows of teeth have tricuspid crowns.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pellegrini is a small representative of the genus especially concerning the prey upon which it feeds. Is shows a strong resemblance to Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perciodes as well as similarities to Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) estor and Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) mento (Greenwood, 1962).


percoides (Prognathochromis) Boulenger, 1915. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perciodes is a northern species found near Entebbe Uganda and Majita Beach Tanzania. It grows to 9.3cm, has a straight cranial slope with a pronounced premaxillary appendage. The outer most rows in both jaws are equally extended and made up of unicuspid teeth with some weakly bicuspid towards the back portion of the mandible. One to three rows of tricuspid teeth make up the inner rows. The teeth are slightly curved inward.

There are 5 or 6 dark bars extending down the flanks from the back. Live colors are unknown. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perciodes is found in shallow waters close to shore.
Gut contents contained the remains of small cichlids. This species may prey on schools of young fry (Greenwood, 1962).

perrieri (Prognathochromis) Pellegrin, 1909 Lake Victoria extinct in the wild

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perrieri is a smaller member of this subgenus reaching 12cm. In the wild Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perrieri feeds on small fish, usually newly released haplochromine cichlids.

Sexually active males will excavate a pit or nest of sorts. A receptive female will color to a pattern similar to the male entering into his territory and making a number of "dry" spawning runs. Eventually spawning occurs. Brooding females are usually good at holding to term which is about 16 days. The fry are tended for another ten days post release. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perrieri are maternal mouth brooders (Loiselle, 2004).

Although Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) perrieri is now believed extinct in the wild, captive populations are being maintained within the Lake Victoria Species Survival Program (LVSSP)

plutonius (Tridontochromis) Greenwood & Barel, 1978. Lake Victoria

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) plutonius is found near Tefu Island Speke Gulf Tanzania and grows to 9.6cm. This species is a slender shallow bodied cichlid found over a mud bottom at 28m. Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) plutonius is unusual in that the intestine in double the length of other Prognathochromis representatives suggesting at least a partial diet of plant material.

The cranial profile is straight with a pronounced premaxillary pedicel. The lower jaw extends slightly beyond the upper. The outer rows of teeth in both jaws are made up of a mixture of both tricuspid and bicuspid. There are one or two rows of inner teeth of tricuspid crowning (Greenwood, 1978).

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) plutonius is purple in color with a yellow grey sheen about the cheeks. The chest and abdomen are darker nearly black. There are three faint bars running laterally across the body as well as a straight stripe running from the corner of the mouth, through the eye, around the forehead and down the other side in a continuous line. The dorsal fin has a grey bottom with splashes of red on the soft portions. The anal fin has a red hue (brighter towards the front) with orange ocelli. The pelvic fins are black. The caudal fin is black at the base and yellow towards the edge (Barel, 1978).

prognathus (Prognathochromis) (Pellegrin, 1904) Kavirondo Bay, Lake Victoria. Extinct

The Prognathochromis genus based on this species and has a wide distribution throughout Lake Victoria. Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) prognathus is similar in many respects to Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) venator from Lake Nabugabo (Greenwood, 1965) and may share a common ancestor. Maximum size is to 14.1 cm. Anatomical differences correlate to species size; for example, the larger the fish, the more elongated the head shape is. The lower jaw extends slightly beyond the upper. The cranial profile is straight in smaller individuals while larger Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) prognathus have a concave slope with a pronounced "beak" look. The dentition in smaller individuals (under 10.5cm) consists of bicuspid dentition in the outer jaw rows and tricuspid teeth in the inner rows. Larger fish have mostly unicuspid teeth in the outer rows and a mixture of tricuspid and unicuspid teeth in the inner.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) prognathus is found over a hard substrate in water less than 7m deep. Mainly a piscavore, insect remains and some plant fragments were also found in gut samplings (Greenwood, 1969).

pseudopellegrini (Prognathochromis) Greenwood, 1967. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pseudopellegrini is native to Ugandan waters including the Sesse Islands, Pilkington Bay, Ekunu Bay and Nasu Point and grows to 15cm. It is a slender species rather torpedo shaped with a convex dorsal curvature. There is a slight indentation at the forehead when the premaxillary appendage begins. The dentition in the front row of both jaws is unicuspid as are the 1-3 rows of inner teeth.

Mature male coloration consists of a dark brown upper portion of the head and golden body coloration. The sides are tinged with an orange flush. The dorsal fin has an orange tinge while the caudal fin is red at the base and darker towards the outer edges. The anal fin is translucent and dotted with red colored ocelli. The pelvic fins are dark.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pseudopellegrini is found over a mud bottom in varying depths as far as 28m. The diet is largely unknown however fish remains were found in two specimens. This species resembles Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pellegrini with the obvious differences being size and lighter coloration of Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pseudopellegrini (Greenwood, 1969).

sulphureus (Tridontochromis) Greenwood & Barel, 1978. Lake Victoria

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) sulphureus reaches 10.9cm and is found in the open waters of Lake Victoria (Ugandan waters). The head is pointed with a straight cranial profile. There is a slight protuberance of the eye socket. The premaxillary is prominent giving the species a beak like appearance. The lower jaw protrudes beyond the upper. The front rows of teeth in both jaws are made up of a mixture of unicuspid, bicuspid and tricuspid dentition. The 1-3 inners rows of teeth are tricuspid.

Both sexes of Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) sulphureus are similarly colored with a base of bright yellow from which the species derives its trivial name. The belly is silver while the dorsum is olive green.
Both the caudal and dorsal fins are yellow. The anal fin is grey spotted with yellow ocelli. The pelvic fins are black.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) sulphureus is found over a mud bottom in water 16-20m deep. Food consists of diptern larvae and pupae as well as unidentifiable crustaceans. Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) sulphureus displays a close affinity to Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) crocopeplus (Greenwood, 1978).

tridens (Tridontochromis) Regan & Trewavas, 1978. Lake Victoria

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) chlorochous, Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) crocopeplus, Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) dolichorhynchus, Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) tyrianthinus, and Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) tridens, make up the Prognathochromis tridens species complex.

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) tridens grows to 11.9cm. It is found over a soft bottom in deep waters (30+m) offshore. It has been taken from both the Tanzanian and Kenyan coasts. The "tridens" moniker is in correlation to the outer rows of teeth in both jaws being tricuspid in an examined individual, an unusual feature of haplochromines. This dentition feature in not constant with the species as the fore row of teeth can also be of unicuspid and bicuspid make up, or even a mixture of all three. One to four rows of tricuspid inner teeth conclude the dental structure. The cranial slope is straight with a pronounced premaxillary hump and well developed appendage. Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) tridens feeds on crustaceans and unknown insects (Greenwood, 1967).

tyrianthinus (Tridontochromis) Greenwood & Gee, 1969. Lake Victoria

Prognathochromis (Tridontochromis) tyiathinus grows to 10.5 cm with no noticeable size differentiation between the sexes. It is found north of Nsadzi Island at a depth of 22-30m over a mud bottom where it feeds upon small haplochromines as well as crustaceans.

The cranial profile is slightly convex with a minimal hump at eye level where the premaxillary begins. The mouth curves downward slightly and the lower jaw protrudes slightly beyond the upper. The outer rows of teeth are usually unicuspid but can contain a mixture of bicuspid and tricuspid as well. The 1-3 rows of inner teeth are mostly tricuspid and implanted laterally. The upper body, into the dorsal, is bright purple. "Tyrianthinus" (Greek) is in reference to this coloration (Greenwood, 1969).

venator (Prognathochromis) Greenwood, 1965 endangered Nabugabo Lakes (Lake Kayanja)

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) venator at 17.8cm is a formidable predator from whence the name is derived (Latin for hunter). It has a straight cranial profile with a beak like premaxillary appendage protruding from between the eyes. The bottom jaw extends well beyond the upper. The outer rows of both jaws are made up of strong unicuspid teeth. One to three inner rows are mostly unicuspid but might contain weakly tricuspid teeth as well.

Males are blue green along the back and silver on the belly. The dorsal fin is grey with red blotches on the soft portions. The caudal fin is grey with darker coloration along the fin rays. The anal is dark at the base fading to translucent at the outer portions and dotted with orange ocelli. Pelvic fins are dark as well.

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) venator has a wide distribution throughout Lake Kayanja. It is most common over a mud bottom in shallow open waters. Food items consist of small cichlids, barbs and insects. This species is similar in appearance to Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) pellegrini with the major difference being coloration (Greenwood, 1965).

vittatus (Prognathochromis) Boulenger, 1901. Lake Kivu

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) vittatus has been reported extinct however; recent reports suggest that this species is abundant with a wide distribution throughout Lake Kivu. All of the fauna residing in this body of water is in danger of annihilation primarily from the surface waters mixing with the lower anoxic depths. Volcanic activity in the region allows for this situation to be a constant possibility (Kaufman & Hecky, 2003).

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) vittatus reaches an adult size of 19.1cm for males and 17.1cm for females. This piscavore feeds upon other cichlids. There are 9-11 vertical bars stretching across the flanks. The cranial slope is convex with a hump at mid eye level where the premaxillary begins. The lower jaw protrudes beyond the upper.

xenostoma (Prognathochromis) Regan, 1922. Lake Victoria extinct

Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) xenostoma is among the largest specimens of the genus. Maximum size is 20.3cm. Locations where this species has been taken include Entebbe, Napoleon Gulf, Pilkington Bay, Buvuma Channel (Uganda), Naia Bay, Nanga Bay, and near the mouth of the Nzoia River (Kenya). This species is confined to the calm waters of sheltered inlets and bays over a mud bottom. Primary food sources of this piscavore are smaller haplochromines.

The lower jaw extends well beyond the upper. The bottom lip is enlarged and the mouth is down turned at a 45° angle. The cranial profile is straight with a pronounced premaxillary at eye level. Smaller (11.9cm) individuals have bicuspid teeth in the outer rows of both jaws. Adult full sized Prognathochromis (Prognathochromis) xenostoma have strong unicuspid teeth in the outer rows. The 2-5 inner rows of teeth are unicuspid and implanted obliquely.

Undescribed

sp. "Lake Edward"

sp. (Tridontochromis) "silver stiletto"

sp. "long snout" endangered Lake Kyoga/Nawampassa

Referencias:

  • Coleman, Ron & A. P. Galvani. 1998. "Egg size determines offspring size in neotropical cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae)". Copeia. 1988; pp. 209-213 (crc01251).
  • Greenwood, Peter Humphry. 1960. "A Revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis Species (Pisces, Cichlidae), part IV". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology Series. v. 6; n. 4; pp. 227-281 (crc01037).
  • Greenwood, Peter Humphry. 1962. "A Revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis Species (Pisces, Cichlidae), part V". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology Series. v. 9; n. 4; pp. 139-214 (crc01021).
  • Greenwood, Peter Humphry. 1967. "A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), part VI". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology Series. Series 15 (2); pp 73-77 (crc00191).
  • Greenwood, Peter Humphry & J. M. Gee. 1969. "A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), part VII". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology Series. v. 18; n. 1; pp. 1-65 (crc01014).
  • Greenwood, Peter Humphry. 1979. "Towards a phyletic classification of the 'genus' Haplochromis (Pisces, Cichlidae) and related taxa. Part 1". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology Series. v. 35(n. 4): pp. 265-322 (crc00246).
  • Greenwood, Peter Humphry. 1980. "Towards a phyletic classification of the 'genus' Haplochromis (Pisces, Cichlidae) and related taxa. Part II; the species from lakes Victoria, Nabugabo, Edward, George and Kivu". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology Series. v. 39(n. 1), pp. 1-101 (crc00319) (resumen).
  • Loiselle, Paul V.. 2004. "Aquarium Husbandry of Two Lake Victoria Plankton-Feeding Haplochromines". Cichlid News Magazine (crc00681).

Cita:

Steeves, Greg. (febrero 03, 2006). "Prognathochromis (Greenwood, 1980), a Genus review". El Cichlid Room Companion. Consultado en octubre 24, 2014, desde: http://www.cichlidae.com/section.php?id=127.