Samiec Abactochromis labrosus z wyspy Katale, przeszukujący kamienne groty w poszukiwaniu jedzenia, jezioro Malawi[Malawi]. Kiedy dwa osobniki spotkają silniejszego wspólnie przeganiają go z jego żerowisk. Abactochromis labrosus jest rzadkim gatunkiem, spędzającym większość czasu w kamiennych grotach, gdzie jego brązowe ubarwienie zlewa się z otoczeniem. .
Aequidens pallidus is one of the most common cichlids in the smaller streams of the Rio Negro drainage. They are most often found in water deeper than 50 cm but rarely in the fast flowing part of the stream. They need some structure in the form of branches, roots, or leaf litter and are rarely encountered on the open sandy substrate.
Altolamprologus compressiceps zamieszkujące centralną część jeziora Tanganika noszą bardzo ciemne, niemal idealnie czarne ubarwienie. Rzadkim widokiem jest para pływająca wspólnie tak jak na tym filmie. Zazwyczaj większa ryba bezlitośnie przegania mniejszego osobnika. W tym wypadku para (samiec jest większy) szuka odpowiedniego miejsca do odbycia tarła. Partnerzy pozostają razem tylko przez kilka dni, po czym tylko samica zajmuje się opieką nad młodymi.
During the low water season Apistogramma gibbiceps forms dense populations in the shallow parts of small streams (igarapés). Most individuals are encountered in the leaf litter that accumulates in eddies and in marginal pools where the flow in minimal (but still present). The density of Apistogramma gibbiceps is often so high that more than a dozen individuals can be seen together at one time. There is very little interaction between the sexes and fry-guarding females are very rare during the low water period. Most breeding probably takes place when the rising waters provide ample breeding substrate in the surrounding forest.
Aristochromis christyi to rybożerna pielęgnica, która przemierza głównie obszar przejściowy w poszukiwaniu młodych pielęgnic. Pod koniec sekwencji zobaczycie, jak atakuje i zjada małego Protomelas taeniolatus. Wideo wykonane u brzegu wyspy Mbenji.
Asprotilapia leptura to pielęgnica pospolita w górnym obszarze skalistym i jest często spotykana w grupach odżywiających się na dużych skałach. Obcinają one glony biorąc ich krótkie pasma pomiędzy zęby przy pełni otwartym pysku, po go zamykają, wyrywając przy tym glony. Robią to w bardzo szybki sposób, co możecie zobaczyć na tym filmie. Sfilmowane u brzegu wyspy Mvuna, niedaleko Kipili.
Aulonocara ethelwynnae żywi się małymi ślimakami i innymi bezkręgowcami, które żyją w górnej warstwie kilku centymetrów piaszczystego podłoża. Wykrywa je za pomocą "sonaru". Aulonocara ethelwynnae jest pospolita jedynie u brzegó wyspy Chitande, gdzie samce zazwyczaj zamieszkują głębokości poniżej 10m. Obejmują one duże terytoria, aczkolwiek miejsce do odbywania tarła jest często trudne do zauważenia. Obrona terytorium jest słaba. Samice żyją w małych grupach, liczących nie więcej niz 10 osobników.
Obszar występowania Aulonocara kandeense jest ograniczony do brzegów wyspy Kande, stosunkowo małego skrawka ziemi w centralnej części jeziora. Gęstość populacji tego gatunku bywała bardzo duża, z tysiącami osobników poszukujących pożywienia u podstawy piaszczystego podłoża. Wokół całej wyspy samce obejmują terytoria (i grotę tarliskową) pomiędzy skałami blisko piaszczystego dna, na głębokości około 10m.
Dorosłe okazy, Gome Rock, j. Malawi [Malawi].
Dorosłe Aulonocara sp. 'chitande type kande', wyspa Kande, j. Malawi [Malawi].
Samiec Aulonocara sp. 'chitande type masinje' patroluje małe terytorium rozrodcze na piasku obok skały (słabo zaznaczone) w wodach j. Malawi opodal Gome, [Malawi]. Miejsce to jest oczyszczone z grubszego żwiru, jednak brak tam dołka czy też kratera. Samice przebywają w stadach nad piaskiem, lub w strefie przejściowej.
Aulonocara sp. 'yellow collar' jest spotykana głównie w południowo-wschodniej części jeziora Malawi. Na rafie Mazinzi, gdzie gatunek ten został sfilmowany, ogromne stada poszukujących pożywienia samic i nieaktywnych seksualnie samców przemierzają piaszczyste podłoże tuż przy podstawie skalistej rafy (na głębokości ok. 10m). Samce budują kratery tarliskowe pod skałami a czasami pomiędzy nimi. Trudną rzeczą jest uzyskać spektakularne ubarwienie samców w niewoli, ale możliwe, że potrzebne jest do tego duże akwarium i kilka samców.
Aulonocara stuartgranti żerujący na miękkim podłożu w jeziorze Malawi, gdzie "nasłuchuje" za pomocą powiększonych porów czuciowych w głowie za bezkręgowcami ukrytymi w dnie. Gdy tylko ofiara zostaje zlokalizowana, zanurza głowę w substracie i wyciąga pełny jego pysk, filtrując piasek w poszukiwaniu potencjalnej ofiary.
Aulonocranus dewindti, aktywne seksualnie samce sfilmowane u brzegu wyspy Nkondwe, opodal Kipili, żyją w płytkim biotopie przejściowym. Budują tam u podstaw skał małe kratery-zamki. Zagęszczenie populacji jest często bardzo wysokie, zatem i potyczki między samcami nie należą do rzadkości. Wyraźnie widać, że samce demonstrują swoją siłę w bardzo gwałtowny sposób.
Benthochromis tricoti, tutaj sfilmowany w okolicy Mtosi w Tanzanii, zazwyczaj przebywa na większych głębokościach rzędu 80-100m, gdzie odżywia się planktonem. Podczas pory tarłowej samce podpływają do płytszych wód, gdzie zajmują terytoria tarliskowe na szczycie dużego głazu. Samice pozostają w dużych grupach nawet podczas inkubacji.
Biotodoma wavrini are commonly found together with Satanoperca lilith over sandy substrates in small tributaries of the Rio Negro, but instead of sifting randomly through mouthfuls of sand Biotodoma wavrini picks at items that have been located visually. They are rare in fast flowing streams or in the fast flowing parts of streams, but can tolerate a steady current in the water.
Buccochromis heterotaenia jest dużym drapieżnikiem, często spotykanym na głębszych obszarach biotopu skalistego. Samce budują w pobliżu sporego głazu półkoliste zagłębienie służące za miejsce do odbywania tarła. W jednym miocie może znajdować się do 500 jaj a samice opiekują się swoim potomstwem długo po tym, aż zacznie ono swobodnie pływać. Samiec został sfilmowany opodal Otter Point, a pilnująca narybku samica w okolicy Zimbabwe Rock.
Chilotilapia euchilus przemierza swoje siedlisko w poszukiwaniu bezkręgowców ukrywających się w szczelinach skalnych. Gdy tylko jakiegoś znajdzie, drapieżnik szybko przyciska swoje wargi do otwarcia szczeliny i wysysa ofiarę. Grube wargi działają jak uszczelka, która zabezpiecza szczelinę i zwiększa działanie siły ssącej.
Cichla orinocensis to pospolity duży drapieżnik w głównym nurcie Rio Negro, może jednak również występować w jego mniejszych dopływach, gdzie wędruje między zatopionymi pniami i korzeniami. Nawet małe strumienie są domem dla różowego Delfina amazońskiego, lokalnie określanego jako boto; stanowi on zagrożenie dla relatywnie dużych gatunków w małych strumieniach. Cichla orinocensis to żarłoczny gatunek rządzący się własnymi prawami; jest on niebezpieczny dla ryb pasujących do jego pyska, ale nie dla drobnych kąsaczy czy innych małych ryb nie wartych pościgu.
Dorosły Copadichromis borleyi, wyspa Chinyamwezi, j. Malawi [Malawi].
Crenicichla inpa is a medium-sized pike cichlid which is rather common in the smaller tributaries of the Rio Negro and its effluents. It shares the habitat with the larger C. johanna and C. lenticulata and with the much smaller C. notophthalmus, but it is an ambush hunter that behaves like the larger pikes in that it hangs out under logs and branches, or hides between the leaf litter waiting for bite-size prey to come within reach.
Crenicichla johanna to największy gatunek Crenicichla spotykany w małych dopływach Rio Negro. Ten dorosły okaz był podobnej wielkości co C. lenticulata występujące razem z nim.
Crenicichla lenticulata to duża pielęgnica szczupakowata, i jedna z niewielu pielęgnic dorzecza Rio Negro wycierająca się przez cały rok. Para ta została sfilmowana w październiku (2012 roku) w czasie pory suchej. Nawet dorosłe Crenicichla lenticulata polują w grupach pomiędzy korzeniami i pniami. Tarlaki można rozpoznać po ubarwieniu godowym, na które składają się czarne, pionowe pasy bądź wydłużone plamy i bardzo jasna kolorystyka głowy, pyska i górnej części boków. Zarówno samce jak i samice pilnują potomstwa - czasami przez wiele miesięcy od rozpoczęcia pływania przez narybek. Na tym samym siedlisku spotkałem większe C. johanna, średniej wielkości C. inpa, i najmniejsze C. notophthalmus.
The pair of Crenicichla lenticulata in this video was filmed in October (2012) during the low water season. Both male and female guard their offspring—sometimes for months after the fry swim free as in this pair. Notice the very large juveniles, about a half dozen, which have about one third the length of their parents and are still guarded by them. The juveniles must be at least two months old which indicates the devotion and persistence of the parental fish.
Crenicichla notophthalmus to pielęgnica pospolicie występująca w małych dopływach Rio Negro. W Igarapé Bariri przebywa wśród opadłych liści wraz z gatunkami Apistogramma, poluje również wśród zarośli, gdzie przedstawiciele Apistogramma są rzadziej spotykani. W czasie niskiego stanu wód pary tarlaków są bardzo rzadko widywane, a większość okazów jest zainteresowanych jedynie wyłapywaniem z grubej warstwy liści małych ryb i bezkręgowców.
Ctenopharynx nitidus feeds from the thin layer of silt that lies on top of the sand. It quickly sucks in the soft and loose sediment and filters it for invertebrates. It usually moves through the habitat rapidly resembling a vacuum cleaner. Videographed at Ruarwe, Lake Malawi [Malawi].
Ctenopharynx pictus feeding on plankton just above the rocky surface, it extends its jaws to create a weak flow into his mouth. A slow motion sequence shows the extreme extension of the mouth in detail.
Cunningtonia longiventralis, here videoed near Kipili, Tanzania, is a member of the so-called Featherfin cichlids that are characterized by the very long ventral fins ending in yellow lappets that mimic an egg. The interesting feature of this species is the fact that it rakes algae from the substrate similar to the technique performed by Petrochromis species.
Cyathochromis obliquidens feeding from the algae that grows on the leaves of Vallisneria which forms beds in the shallow, muddy areas of Lake Malawi. This very specialized "algae raking" behavior can be fully appreciated in a slow motion sequence of the video.
Cyphotilapia frontosa zamieszkuje głębszy litoral skalisty, często głębiej niż 15 metrów. Samce posiadają zazwyczaj harem składający się z maksymalnie 8 samic, i taka grupa pozostaje razem również poza okresem godowym. Na obszarach, gdzie zagęszczenie populacji jest niskie można napotkać samotne, inkubujące samice, jak ta widoczna na filmie. Sfilmowana opodal przylądka Mpimbwe [Tanzania].
Dicrossus filamentosus is a common dwarf cichlid in the small tributaries of the Rio Negro where they pick at any edible items from the aufwuchs on leaves and branches. Breeding males are rare in the low water season but are sometimes seen cruising their territories. Only the female takes care of her offspring and in this clip you see two different females leading their fry through the water plants along the banks of the Rio Jufari.
Dimidiochromis compressiceps gold morph at Chiwi Rocks, Chizimulu, Lake Malawi.
Ectodus descampsii lives in the upper layers of the sandy habitat and is rarely encountered at a depth of five meters or more. Males construct shallow spawning dishes and court females. Non-breeding individuals gather in small groups and forage from the sand. Filmed at Namansi in Tanzania..
Eretmodus cyanostictus, here videoed at Nkondwe Island near Kipili, Tanzania, form monogamous pairs that also stay together when not breeding. The attractive goby cichlids, their common name as they hop around the habitat, are biparental mouthbrooders in which the female broods the eggs for the first 10-12 days and then gives the larvae to the male who broods them for a similar period.
Eretmodus marksmithi, here videoed at Cape Mpimbwe [Tanzania], feeds from the aufwuchs by literally scraping the algae from the rocks. They have chisel-like teeth that break off the algae at their anchoring point on the rocky substrate. Very few cichlids feed in such a manner.
exLamprologus calliurus resembles ‘L.’ brevis but can be told apart by the lyre-shaped tail. It is also found in shell beds while ‘L.’ brevis is often found in isolated shells. Male exLamprologus calliurus have a characteristic orange patch on the nape behind the eye.
exLamprologus ocellatus has a lake-wide distribution and is usually found in shallow water rarely deeper than 10 meters. It hides its shell by burying it under the sand, leaving just the entrance free. Juveniles stay for a long time in the female’s shell because without the protection of a shell life is very dangerous on the open sand.
Genyochromis mento wykorzystuje bójkę dwóch samców Tropheops sp. 'elongatus boadzulu' na rafie Masasa, Malawi, i próbuje zjeść płetwę odbytową jednego z nich. .
Haplotaxodon microlepis is a biparental mouth-brooder in which the female broods the eggs initially but is later assisted by the male when the larvae become too big to fit inside the female’s mouth. Both male and female guard the free-swimming fry and are taken up by both parents when danger threatens. The video was filmed at Cape Mpimbwe in Tanzania..
A group of Hemitilapia oxyrhynchus in Lake Malawi stripping the leaves of Vallisneria, removing the algae, the plants themselves are left unharmed.
Heros severus is a medium-sized cichlid which is very common in the smaller tributaries of the middle Rio Negro. Most individuals shelter underneath logs and branches, but sometimes small groups are more in the open, even on the open sand in the flow of the stream—but not in the strongest flowing part. During the low water season (videoed in October 2012) breeding is very rare and the adults “hang out” together without much quarreling. They feed mainly from the algae growing on the logs and branches.
The beautiful Julidochromis sp. 'regani kipili' was videoed at Nkondwe Island near Kipili. This cave brooder has an interesting life history because usually the female grows larger than the male and she shares a cave with usually more than one male. There is normally a difference in the size of the males with the smallest the deepest in the cave, out of reach of the larger male. The female spawns with both males, sometimes at the same time.
Labeotropheus fuelleborni feeding feeding in the rocky habitat of Lake Malawi by scraping algae from the rock surface. A slow-motion close-up sequence shows how algae are harvested and how the distance to the rock is held by the prominent nose of this wonderful mbuna.
The incredibly beautiful Labidochromis caeruleus in the rocky habitat of Mbowe island in Lake Malawi.
Labidochromis chisumulae picking invertebrates from crevices in the shallow rocky habitat of Chiwi Rocks near Chizumulu Island, Lake Malawi.
Laetacara thayeri is mostly found in extremely shallow water; normally in pools fringing small streams or in puddles of the flooded forest. These subadult individuals were videoed in a small pool less than 30 cm deep and which was separated from the main stream by a tiny trickle of water. There are also a few Apistogramma pertensis in the pool but this species is more common in the main stream, albeit in shallow water.
Lepidiolamprologus attenuatus is a very common cichlid of the intermediate habitat and pairs defending free-swimming fry is a familiar sight. The fry feed on the plankton in the water column. This video was filmed at Nkondwe Island near Kipili.
Lepidiolamprologus hecqui is usually found near shell beds or at least have a number of shells in their territory. The female lays a small number of eggs, visible near the entrance of her shell, and protects her larvae by keeping them in the shell. Both male and female defend the fry once they swim free. Juveniles and young females have an attractive yellow dorsal with a black blotch.
Lepidiolamprologus mimicus is a predator resembling L. elongatus but lacks the spangling of the latter and has a yellowish coloration. Often it is only the female that guards the free-swimming fry. Videoed at Nkondwe Island near Kipili [Tanzania].
The as yet undescribed cichlid, Lepidiolamprologus sp. 'meeli kipili', utilizes an empty Neothauma shell as a nursery for their offspring. A pair digs a small crater in the sand around one or more empty snail shells. The eggs are deposited on the outside of the shell (as either male or female are too large to fit inside), but the larvae and fry use the shell as a shelter when growing up. Filmed near Namansi in Tanzania.
Lethrinops albus breeds in the shallow sandy habitat, often near rocky outcrops. Males construct a mound of sand but spawning takes place alongside near the base, not on top of the mound. Territorial males are about 2-3 meters apart and this particular lek had more than 100 males.
Lethrinops furcifer in Lake Malawi scooping sand and sifting it through the gills in order to obtain the small invertebrates it feeds on.
Lichnochromis acuticeps uses its pointed head and compressed snout to penetrate deeply into small cracks among the rocky habitat where it hunts for small fish and invertebrates.
Mesonauta insignis is a common cichlid of the smaller tributaries of the Rio Negro and Rio Branco. It is always found in the upper 20 cm of the water column among the stems and floating leaves of water plants. It feeds on higher plants and in the clip one individual is chewing on a stem of Eliocharis.
Metriaclima callainos combing the so-called loose aufwuchs in the rocky habitat of Lake Malawi harvesting its food which consists of diatoms and small strands of algae. The slow-motion sequence of the video clearly shows the way this popular cichlid feeds.
Metriaclima estherae feeding from the algal matrix on the rocks from which it combs the loose material. The slow-motion sequence in the video clearly shows the way this popular cichlid feeds.
Metriaclima sp. 'aurora bevous' combing the aufwuchs in the rocky habitat of Chizumulu Island in Lake Malawi in search of diatoms and other loose material. The slow-motion in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Metriaclima sp. 'chinyankwazi' combing aufwuchs in the rocky habitat of Chinyamwezi Island, Lake Malawi, in search of diatoms and other small plantlike material. The slow-motion close-up sequence in the video clearly shows the way this popular mbuna feeds.
Metriaclima sp. 'elongatus chewere' is only found at a small reef near Chewere, a small fishing village north of Chilumba. Males have a spawning burrow beneath a few rocks in the intermediate habitat. Females are often found in small groups while foraging in the water column where they feed on plankton. Mouthbrooding females are mostly solitary and hide between the rocks.
Metriaclima sp. 'elongatus goldbar' feeding from the aufwuchs on the rocks of the rocky habitat at Chiwi Rocks in Lake Malawi. It feeds on the so-called loose aufwuchs which consists of diatoms and small algal strands.
Metriaclima sp. 'elongatus linganjala' combing the aufwuchs on the rocks of Linganjala Reef, Chizumulu Island, Lake Malawi. The slow-motion sequence in the video clearly shows that this species feeds in the typical manner of a Metriaclima. You can also see it, opportunistically, feed on plankton.
Metriaclima sp. 'elongatus yellowtail' feeds on the so-called loose aufwuchs which consists of diatoms and small algal strands. The slow-motion sequence of its feeding technique clearly shows why this elongate mbuna is a member of Metriaclima.
Metriaclima sp. 'kingsizei masimbwe' combing aufwuchs in the rocky habitat of Masimbwe Island, Likoma, Lake Malawi, in search of diatoms and other small plantlike material, from which this mbuna lives.
Metriaclima zebra at Thumbi West Island in the southern part of Lake Malawi. It feeds by pressing its wide open mouth against the rocky substrate and combing the loose material from it when it closes its mouth. The slow-motion sequence in the video clearly shows the way this popular cichlid feeds.
Mylochromis labidodon feeding over the gravely substrate at Minos Reef, where it rolls pebbles with its mouth while uncovering invertebrates hiding beneath them.
Neolamprologus cylindricus is a predator searching for insects and crustaceans in the aufwuchs. Individuals almost always forage on their own and will expel conspecifics from their feeding range. This individual was filmed at Mvuna Island near Kipili [Tanzania].
Neolamprologus leleupi leleupi is best known as the bright-yellow lamp that is sometimes difficult to keep in the aquarium. In the wild, however, many populations include dark individuals such as this one here at Kalugunga in Tanzania. It feeds on insects and crustaceans and does so on its own. Conspecifics are not tolerated at the table.
Neolamprologus modestus has a wide distribution throughout the southern half of the lake. This individual was filmed near Namansi in Tanzania. It has a particular way of exposing food items in the upper layer of the sandy substrate of the intermediate habitat. It dives in the sand and “wags” its tail and waves its body to sweep aside the top layer of the sediment.
Neolamprologus pulcher (previously N. brichardi) is one of the few species in Lake Tanganyika where juveniles and young fish help in defense of the nest of their parents and in which so-called helpers (unrelated adults) assist a successful pair in raising young. The density of breeding pairs can be dense at some places and huge groups of this cichlid feed from the plankton in the water column; as seen here at Nkondwe Island near Kipili.
Neolamprologus savoryi has a lake-wide distribution but is nowhere found in dense populations. They do not form large aggregations such as seen in N. pulcher but form pairs that defend a small spawning cave in the deeper rocky habitat. Juveniles are characterized by a few broad bars on the flank. These fish were videoed at Mtosi in Tanzania.
Neolamprologus tetracanthus is a common cichlid of the intermediate habitat and in particular there where the rocky reef ends and the sand continues. In the southern part of Lake Tanganyika they have a yellow tinge on the body and clear yellow fins, in the northern section of the lake there is no yellow pigment on the fish and they are more bluish silvery. For nesting purposes they dig a crater next to a rock and in here they use the underside of the rock to deposit eggs and often burrow a little nursery hole inside the crater to house the wrigglers and fry. These fry-guarding parents were videoed at Namansi in Tanzania.
Adults at Gome Rock.
Nimbochromis polystigma blending in with the rocky environment of Lake Malawi because of its cryptic coloration and ambushing small, unaware fish from which it feeds.
Often hunting in large groups Nimbochromis polystigma chases small fish in Vallisneria beds of the shallow areas in Lake Malawi.
Males of Ophthalmotilapia boops are all-black at most localities but at Nkondwe Island near Kipili, where this video was taken, they sport a neon-blue patch on the caudal peduncle. Males have a very large territory on top of a large boulder from which all intruders are chased. Sometimes the spawning site is visible as a yellowish patch of dense algal growth.
Male Ophthalmotilapia nasuta, here videoed at Cape Mpimbwe, build small sand castles on top of a rock in order to be close to the females which swim in the water column above the males’ territories. Every grain of sand is carried by the male from the sandy bottom nearby. The male courts and leads ripe females to his spawning “cup” and vehemently chases competitors from the premises.
Male Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, here videoed at Cape Mpimbwe, defend a spawning site on top of a large rocks but such is not demarcated by sand. Females forage in sometimes large schools and when they are ready to spawn visit the males who defend their territories in shallow water, rarely deeper than five meters. A single female may spawn with two or more males.
Oreochromis tanganicae is usually found near river outlets or in the shallow waters of muddy bays. This school was videoed at Mvuna Island. The large cichlid has an excellent taste and is heavily fished using nets by local fishermen.
Paleolamprologus toae is a species from the northern and central sections of Lake Tanganyika — the pair in the video were filmed at Kalugunga in central Tanzania — and are most often found in the shallow intermediate habitat. The eggs are deposited on the vertical face of a rock and defended by both parents. The fry feed on plankton in the water column while the parents feed at night on crustaceans in the water column.
Paracyprichromis nigripinnis has a lake-wide distribution but is restricted to the dark caves of the deeper rocky habitat, rarely found shallower than 20 meters of depth. Males normally defend a territory along the ceiling of large caves while the females and non-breeding individuals forage in the cave’s entrance or nearby. The food consists of plankton which is picked up bit by bit. These fish were filmed at Cape Mpimbwe [Tanzania].
Perissodus microlepis jest gębaczem u którego narybkiem zajmują się oboje rodzice. Samica inkubuje malutkie jaja przez około 6 dni. W tym czasie wykluwają się młode i absorbują woreczek żółtkowy. Potem są pilnowane przez samca który zbiera je do pyska jeśli tylko spostrzeże potencjalne zagrożenie. Zarówno samiec i samica pilnują potomstwa, i gdy narybek jest zbyt duży by zmieścić się do pyska samca, pomaga mu w tym jego partnerka. Jeśli zagrożenie nadchodzi niespodziewanie narybek szybko opada na substrat i przestaje się ruszać; są wówczas bardzo trudne do zauważenia. Ta para została sfilmowana u brzegu wyspy Nkondwe, opodal Kipili [Tanzania].
Petrochromis ephippium has a wide distribution in the southern half of the lake and males at Cape Mpimbwe (Tanzania) and further north along the eastern shore of the lake attain an all-yellow color in adulthood. Such yellow males have been regarded as a different species before and were called “Moshi Yellow”. The individuals in the video were filmed at Cape Mpimbwe [Tanzania].
Petrochromis ephippium has a wide distribution in the southern half of the lake and males at Cape Mpimbwe (Tanzania) and further north along the eastern shore of the lake attain an all-yellow color in adulthood. Such yellow males have been regarded as a different species before and were called “Moshi Yellow”. The individuals in the video were filmed at Kalugunga, north of Ikola.
Petrochromis ephippium has a wide distribution in the southern half of the lake and males videoed here at Mvuna Island [Tanzania] normally have a dark color with a white to beige-colored saddle spot. Females have a similar color but are somewhat smaller and more secretive.
Petrochromis famula has a lake-wide distribution but is nowhere found in large numbers. It is the smallest of the trio Petrochromis that seem to occupy the shallow rocky reefs all around the lake. The other two species are P. polyodon (and similar large species) and P. ephippium. The male in this short video was videoed at Kalugunga in Tanzania.
Petrochromis fasciolatus has a lake-wide distribution and is more often found in the intermediate habitat than other members of this genus. Apart from the red-eyed variant along the central Tanzanian shore of the lake, no other geographical variants are known for this species. One of the males in the video, which were filmed at Kalugunga in Tanzania, shows an interesting bright orange dot (the same color as the upper iris) on the head. This is an aberration rather than a different species because it is the only one I ever found.
Petrochromis sp. 'macrognathus rainbow' is found around the islands near Kipili and at Cape Mpimbwe, where this video was taken. It inhabits the very shallow rocky habitat and is rarely found deeper than seven meters. Females show a pattern of vertical bars on the flank and thus resemble P. macrognathus from the southern part of the lake. P. sp. ‘macrognathus rainbow’ shares the habitat at Cape Mpimbwe with P. sp. ‘texas blue’ (a P. polyodon type), P. ephippium, P. famula, and P. sp. ‘orthognathus ikola’.
Petrochromis sp. 'orthognathus ikola' is a very attractive species which is found along the central Tanzanian shore of the lake, between Cape Mpimbwe (where this video was taken) and the Mahali Mountains. Males and females have an almost identical coloration although that of the male is more pronounced and has blue tinge. At the Cape it occurs in the pure rocky habitat but at other places it can also be found in intermediate habitats.
Petrochromis sp. 'texas blue' is a member of the P. polyodon group that consists of very large species that occupy a niche in the upper rocky habitats around the lake. They show a significant amount of variation and are therefore referred to under different names. P. sp. ‘texas blue’ occurs along the south-central Tanzanian shore of the lake between Mtosi (where this video was taken) and Cape Mpimbwe. Males are usually very shy as they appear prime targets for otters. P. sp. ‘texas blue’ is a very accomplished algae feeder and effectively harvests the loose aufwuchs from the substrate with slow movements of the mouth. Compare in this case the much faster browsing movements of P. fasciolatus.
Petrotilapia chrysos is sometimes seen in large schools consisting mostly of females and perhaps subadult males. The male is very dark blue, almost black, and only feeds in his territory while the females move around and feed whenever they can. It is the only Petrotilapia species at the island and it is therefore found in the very shallow as well as in the deeper regions.
Petrotilapia flaviventris lives at a somewhat deeper level than most other Petrotilapia and is normally found in intermediate habitats or sediment-rich rocky habitats, such as here at Chiwi Rock, Chizumulu Island. The rocky habitat at Chiwi is rather steep and therefore there seems to be more three-dimensional space for males to defend territories. [ss] is therefore a rather common cichlid at Chiwi.
Petrotilapia mumboensis is one of the four Petrotilapia species at Mbenji and lives in more or less the same habitat as P. sp. 'yellow chin' although latter seems to be more common in shallow intermediate habitats. The male's spawning cave is between the rocks and it usually has an entrance at the top.
Petrotilapia nigra combing the aufwuchs in the rocky habitat of Zimbawe Rock in Lake Malawi in search of diatoms and other loose material. The slow-motion in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Placidochromis milomo wanders through the habitat in search of invertebrates hiding in crevices; once found, the predator quickly presses its lips into the opening and sucks them out. The thick, fat lips act as a gasket which seals the crevice entrance, increasing the strength of the vacuum force.
Plecodus straeleni is a common scale eater of the rocky habitat. It mimics Cyphotilapia frontosa in coloration so that it can approach victims, often foraging individuals of Cyathopharynx foae, that usually are not afraid of small C. frontosa. The video, which was filmed at Cape Mpimbwe, also shows a courting male and a dark-colored female.
Protomelas fenestratusdefend breeding shallow spawning pits in the sand between small stones at deep areas at Gome Rock, Lake Malawi [Malawi]. The mouth-brooding females take her babies to shallow Vallisneria beds where they release them.
Protomelas pleurotaenia blowing the substrate in the soft bottom of Otter Island, Lake Malawi; Malawi trying to uncover invertebrates hiding buried.
Pseudotropheus ater picking and ripping algae of the rocky habitat at Chinyamwezi Island, Lake Malawi [Malawi].
Pseudotropheus flavus picking and ripping algae of the rocky habitat at Lake Malawi; Malawi. The slow-motion close-up sequence in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Pseudotropheus heteropictus picking and ripping algae of the rocky habitat at Chizumulu Island, Lake Malawi; Malawi.
Pseudotropheus livingstonii picking and ripping algae of the rocky habitat at Lake Malawi; Malawi.
Pseudotropheus sp. 'aggressive grey' picking and ripping algae of the rocky habitat at Masimbwe Island, Lake Malawi; Malawi.
Pseudotropheus sp. 'elongatus aggressive' picking and ripping algae of the rocky habitat, Lake Malawi; Malawi. The slow-motion close-up sequence in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Pseudotropheus sp. 'elongatus slab' picking and ripping algae of the rocky habitat at Thumbi West Island, Lake Malawi; Malawi. The slow-motion close-up sequence in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Pterophyllum scalare to prawdopodobnie najbardziej majestatyczna pielęgnica na świecie. Widok skalarów wdzięcznie przemykających pomiędzy licznymi gałęziami i korzeniami jest olśniewający. Wygląda na to, że preferują one wodę o głębokości ok. 1,5-2 metrów, z dużą ilością gałęzi drzew, które wpadły do wody. Żywią się glonami porastającymi te kawałki drewna. Drapieżnikom nie jest łatwo się do nich dostać (kamery wideo również miały problemy ze złapaniem na nich ostrości), podczas gdy same skalary poruszaja się po lesie jak gdyby nie miały przed sobą żadnych przeszkód. Wspaniałe!.
Satanoperca lilith is commonly found in the smaller tributaries of the Rio Negro where they grub in the white sandy substrate which is so characteristic of the tea-colored waters in South America. Satanoperca lilith is usually found in small groups and appears to like areas that are about one meter deep in water that has a moderate flow.
Dorosłe [sp[ żyją w głębszych partiach małych dopływów Rio Negro, ale ich potomstwo żeruje w bardzo płytkich wodach (mniej niż 50cm głębokości) wzdłuż brzegów. W głębszych partiach wody wraz ze swoimi rodzicami byłyby zbytnio narażone na ataki drapieżników. Wszystko, czego im potrzeba to drobny piasek, powszechny w północnym dorzeczu Amazonki, z którego wybierają poprzez filtrację i żucie drobne bezkręgowce. W okolicach 35. sekundy filmu w tle Crenicichla notophthalmus rzuca się na ofiarę.
Sciaenochromis fryeri feeds on very small fishes and is specialized on juveniles of non-mbuna. Typically Sciaenochromis fryeri swims at a steady pace over the substrate, either pure rocks or rocks and sand, and halts at strategic points when it notices one or more about-one-inch-large juveniles of P. taeniolatus or of similar species. Instead of immediately pursuing the small fish it tries, little by little, to get closer to the prey without alarming it. Then follows a most interesting part because S. fryeri starts rocking back and forth like it is an herbivorous mbuna feeding from the aufwuchs! With each dip S. fryeri moves a bit closer to the prey fish. When the prey fish remains confident in its position and when S. fryeri has closed in far enough, a sudden strike sideward may secure the prey between the jaws of this deceiving piscivore. At the end there is clip of a mbuna feeding on the aufwuchs, a technique Sciaenochromis fryeri imitates.
Telmatochromis dhonti has a lake-wide distribution and is more common in muddy-type intermediate habitat, in particular where there is more open sand/mud than rocks. It is often found burrowing under a flat rock (or other object such as tree roots washed in the lake), but small individuals can also occur in shell beds. This video was taken at Korongwe in Tanzania.
Telmatochromis vittatus occurs in the southern half of the lake and is one of the most common cichlids of the shallow habitats. And it occurs in all kinds of habitats. The first part of the video shows a number of individuals in the rocky habitat at Mvuna Island and the second part was filmed at Nkondwe Island in the shell bed of ’Lamprologus’ callipterus where a very dense population was tolerated by the tenant male.
A pair of Tilapia rendalli guarding and guiding their numerous fry in the shallow area of Mvguti at Lake Malawi.
Tropheops sp. 'elongatus boadzulu' feeding by shaking and ripping off the algae from the rocks cover at Masasa Reef, Lake Malawi. The slow-motion sequence in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Tropheops sp. 'elongatus chizumulu' feeding by shaking and ripping off the algae from the rocks cover at Linganjala Reef, Lake Malawi. The slow-motion sequence in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Tropheops tropheops feeding by pulling off the algae from the rocky habitat with a quick shaking movement at Zimbawe Rock, lake Malawi; Malawi. The slow-motion close-up sequence in the video clearly shows the way this mbuna feeds.
Tropheus annectens has a rather wide distribution in the central part of the lake where it occurs on both sides, along the central-western shore of the Congo and between Ikola and Bulu Point along the eastern shore of Tanzania. It shares the habitat with at least one other member of Tropheus and at Kalugunga, where this video was taken, it is found together with T. sp. ‘ikola’. Adult males of T. annectens lack the bar pattern that characterizes females and juveniles..
Tropheus brichardi has its southernmost point of distribution at Mtosi in Tanzania, where this video was taken. It is here found sympatrically with T. moorii which seems to force it to deeper areas of the rocky habitat. The deeper part contains also more sediment and this may be a reason why we don’t find T. moorii there because that species likes cleaner surfaces to feed from. Tropheus brichardi is able to feed from sediment-rich aufwuchs.
Tropheus brichardi is common in the upper rocky habitat where it feeds on the algae from the aufwuchs on rocks. Juveniles and young females have a pattern of vertical bars but in adult males this pattern disappears and only one or two yellow bars remain. These yellow bars are originally the areas (ground color) between the dark bars; there is no inversion of the bars. At Mvuna Island where these fish were videoed, males usually have a single bar that is often restricted to an elongated spot.
The juveniles of Tropheus brichardi at the islands around Kipili in Tanzania are bright orange and very attractive compared to the gray-brown color of adult males. They are usually found solitary and may move around the rocky habitat until large enough to defend a specific area.
The type locality of Tropheus duboisi is the most peculiar in the whole lake. Streams of air bubbles escape the bottom at thousands of places but the gas does not contain any sulfur as it has no smell (perhaps it is carbon dioxide). Such release of gasses is found in very shallow as well as at depths of 40 meters and probably deeper. The local temperature of the water is noticeably warmer but by not more than about 1-2 degrees Celsius.
Tropheus duboisi at its type locality of Pemba shares the rocky habitat with T. sp. 'black' (Orange Moorii) but only the juveniles are normally found in the shallower water; adult Tropheus duboisi live usually deeper than 10 meters. When the first "Orange Moorii" were exported from this place the exporter was of the opinion that they were T. duboisi with an orange band as only the polka-dotted juveniles were seen together with them. Although the habitat at Pemba is very restricted to a few hundred meters of the shoreline, and it is only there where both species of Tropheus occur, Tropheus duboisi is rather common at depths below 10 meters. I have not seen them in groups; adult as well as juveniles are solitary individuals feeding from the algae on the rocks.
Tropheus moorii at Mtosi [Tanzania] feeds from the algae by grabbing the strands between the closely-set teeth and while holding tight push off from the substrate by fanning its large pectoral fins. For really tight algae it sometimes shakes its body to dislodge the strands. It always feeds from previously "cleaned" sites, mostly cleaned by Petrochromis species.
The Kaiser Moorii, Tropheus sp. 'ikola', here videographed at Kalugunga in Tanzania, is one of the most popular cichlids among aquarists. It shares the rocky habitat with the congener T. annectens and is restricted to the rocky rocks between Isonga and Ikola in Tanzania, a stretch of about 35 km. Both male and female have identical coloration but when mouthbrooding the female becomes lighter with an olive green color.
Tropheus sp. 'mpimbwe' has a very restricted distribution around the rocky peninsula known as Mpimbwe in Tanzania. The video was taken at Cape Mpimbwe, the outermost point of that area. The Tropheus here is characterized by an orange to red cheek and attains a rather large size. Juveniles have a pretty barred pattern but this disappears in adults, males as well as females.
Tropheus sp. 'mpimbwe' has a very restricted distribution around the rocky peninsula known as Mpimbwe in Tanzania. The video was taken at a shallow rocky reef near the town of Korongwe, in water not deeper than about five meters. The Tropheus here is characterized by a yellow patch on the lower part of the cheek. Since the rocks at the reef are heavily sediment-covered not many Tropheus find enough food there.
Variabilichromis moorii is the only lamprologine that primarily feeds on algae. It is a very common cichlid in the southern half of the lake and is found in very shallow rocky areas. This fry-guarding pair was videoed at Mvuna Island.
Xenotilapia boulengeri (previously known as X. sima, but is a different fish) lives on the sand in sometimes huge schools. It filters the sand in search of something edible. It may live mostly at deep levels and only come to shallow water to spawn but such has not yet been witnessed in the lake. Even though this species is one of the most common cichlids from the sandy habitat, very little is known about its life history.
Xenotilapia flavipinnis has a lake-wide distribution but occurs in several different geographical variants. The pairs videoed here were filmed near Namansi in Tanzania. When not breeding X. flavipinnis forms large school and forages from the sand. In the breeding season pairs form and both male and female brood the young. The first 10-12 days the female brood the eggs and then she gives the larvae to the male who continues till they swim free, about a week later. After that both parents guard the fry. When disturbed the fry sink to the bottom and are then difficult to spot.
Xenotilapia sp. 'papilio sunflower' is a biparental mouthbrooder that lives in the deeper rocky habitat. The brood rarely consists of more than a dozen fry which are guarded by both parents. The adults as well as the fry feed from the layer of sediment covering the rocks.
Xenotilapia spilopterus is a biparental mouthbrooder with a very wide distribution in the southern two thirds of the lake. In some places it is so common that juveniles and adults form huge schools feeding on plankton in the water column. Although it feeds from the sands it is often found near rocky habitat where they breed. Both male and female guard their offspring and both parents can take the fry back into their mouths.